Hydropower refers to the conversion of energy from flowing water into electricity. It is considered a renewable energy source because the water cycle is constantly renewed by the sun.
Today, modern hydro plants produce electricity using turbines and generators, where mechanical energy is created when moving water spins rotors on a turbine.
Hydro plant facilities can be categorized into three sizes: large (>30 MW), small (100 kW – 30 MW), or micro (<100 kW).
There are three main types of hydro plants:
- Impoundment facilities are the most common technology which uses a dam to create a large reservoir of water. Electricity is made when water passes through turbines in the dam.
- Pumped storage facilities are similar but have a second reservoir below the dam. Water can be pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir, storing energy for use at a later time.
- Run-of-river facilities rely more on natural water flow rates, diverting just a portion of river water through turbines, sometimes without the use of a dam or reservoirs. Since run-of-river hydro is subject to natural water variability, it is more intermittent than dammed hydro.